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  • Writer's pictureArfan Arshad

New Publication: Roles of land surface schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)

Updated: Nov 24, 2021

This study investigates the relative role of land surface schemes (LSS) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, Version 4, to simulate the heat wave events in Karachi, Pakistan during 16–23 May 2018. The efficiency of the WRF model was evaluated in forecasting heat wave events over Karachi using the three different LSS, namely NOAH, NOAH-MP, and RUC. Three simulating setups were designed with a combination of shortwave, longwave, and LSS: E1 (Dudhia, RRTM, and Noah), E2 (Dudhia, RRTM, and Noah-MP), and E3 (Dudhia, RRTM, and RUC).


Spatial distribution of hourly Tmax (°C) at UTC 11:00 (Daily) and 21:00(Night) on 20 May 2018. (E1 = first setup; E2 = second setup; and E3 = third setup)




Conclusions: This research emphasizes that the selection of LSS is of vital importance in the best simulation of T(max) and SH (LH) over Karachi. Further, it is resulted that the SH flux is taking a higher part to trigger the heat wave event intensity during May 2018 due to dense urban canopy and less vegetated area. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event played role to prolong and strengthen the heat wave period by effecting the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) through walker circulation extension.


Dilawar, Adil, Baozhang Chen, Lifeng Guo, Shuan Liu, Muhammad Shafeeque, Arfan Arshad, Yawar Hussain et al. "Evaluation the WRF Model with Different Land Surface Schemes: Heat Wave Event Simulations and Its Relation to Pacific Variability over Coastal Region, Karachi, Pakistan." Sustainability 13, no. 22 (2021): 12608.

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